Saturday, January 17, 2009

Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing Contributes To The Higher Bacterial Resistance

Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing contributes to the problem of higher bacterial resistance. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a major public health problem, increasing morbidity and mortality as well as healthcare costs.
Rates of antimicrobial resistance were higher in countries with the highest consumption of antibiotics. In countries with the highest use of antibiotics, prescription rates peaked during cold and flu seasons. The antibiotics were prescribed for sore throat during 73% of visits although the prevalence of sore throat caused by bacterial infection among adults is between 5% and 17%. Moreover, most of these patients received antibiotics that were not recommended for pharyngitis, with a high number of prescriptions being for extended-spectrum antibiotics. More than half of children with sore throats received antibiotics, a rate significantly higher than the regular prevalence of bacterial pharyngitis. Furthermore, more than one quarter of these children received an inappropriate antibiotic.
In a study it was found that the rates of resistance of S. pneumoniae to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefdinir were 16%, 6.4%, and 19.2%, respectively. The least effective agents against S. pneumoniae were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and azithromycin, with resistance rates of 23.5% and 34%, respectively. In a study of resistance in urinary tract infections in one health maintenance organization in the United States, the prevalence of resistance among isolates of Escherichia coli to ampicillin, cephalothin, and sulfamethoxazole exceeded 20% in each of the study years 1992 to 1996. The overall prevalence of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole doubled between 1992 and 1996.

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